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Hermann Harry Schmitz (1880–1913)
Don't keep it to yourself Submit Definition. The fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment. There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage.
We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe. If by any chance you spot an offensive image within your image search results please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. Cancel Report. Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web! Thanks for your vote! Therefore the perspective of a dreamer, the daydream, or times of the day when the perception is somewhat blurred obviously such as dusk or dawn and also often noon in myth 50 are established modes for designing grotesque worlds Scholl, p.
In opposition to Kayser, who emphasizes the horrifying aspect of the grotesque, Bakhtin points out the comic and relieving moment, which is caused by distortion 52 : "For the former, the grotesque is [ Yet both retain the central concept of the grotesque as play, i. Futhermore, both agree that the grotesque is an important aesthetic device in times of change, i.
Therefore either of them sees the grotesque as a device which helps to come to terms with one's existence, since in its provocative function the grotesque antagonizes the grotesque in reality, wherefore it has kept its apotropaic character, until today Bakhtin in particular stresses the special linguistic situation within the Renaissance. The Renaissance as an epoch of bilingualism Latin as the "standard language" coexisting next to the national languages with their various dialects allowed the people to let two different worlds not only coexist, but also to mix, since two languages can be at the same time two world-views 58 :.
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In Joyce's work dialects, linguistic idiosyncrasies, and the game with words play an important role. Joyce himself spoke several languages 60 and lived in different European countries Italy, France, Switzerland, and England. Therefore it suggests itself that his background gave him the perspective of the educated Renaissance man, who due to his active multilingualism and ability to view his own language through the eyes of another one, could develop an attitude that admitted an exceptionally free use and idea of language Next to this, representation presented itself mainly as a language problem to Joyce, wherefore "[h]e incorporated into his writing several modes of language and, in doing so, exploited the complex linguistic situation in Ireland to serve his gold" A fact which will be discussed en detail with regard to Finnegans Wake cf.
According to Bakhtin it is mainly the incomplete body in which the grotesque can express itself best. Like Kayser, he considers the mixture of human and animal features to be one of the oldest forms of the grotesque Beyond this, Bakhtin classifies certain body parts as constitutive for the grotesque figure: nose, mouth, sexual organs - in short, all those organs which overcome the border between body and body, and body and world 64 and in extremum also can get a life of their own e. The Nose by Nikolai Gogol. Freud put a finger on this tender spot at the beginning of the 20th century, pulling the body and its drives, especially sexuality, excretory orifices and products, away from the margin of culture back into the centre.
Another constitutive element of the grotesque is the people's laughter which demolishes fear and overcomes the rigid medieval class-structure Laughter breaks down hierarchies, levels out differences and allows the people to get a glimpse of freedom. Yet the overcoming of fear makes laughter an ambivalent phenomenon of which never really can be said where the overcome fear stops and cheerfulness begins Associated with laughter and the body in the theories of Bakhtin is the carnival, which is characterized by four categories: firstly, inversion, since the carnival is a world turned upside-down.
Nevertheless the mundus inversus , just like the grotesque body, represents a cosmic whole; death and birth are represented just like enhancement and degradation 69 and form a system of alternation Secondly, familiarization, since the carnival familiarizes because differences are levelled out in such a universal world. Thirdly, Bakhtin points out the carnevalistic misalliance, which is present in the polarity in the appearance be it on a mental, social, or bodily level. That is, the integration of contradicting phenomena, is yet another typical characteristic of the carnival.
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Lastly, profanation, since the language of the carnival undergoes a process of profanation, so that the language and gestures are drastic and rough As the juxtaposition of Kayser and Bakhtin has shown, the grotesque is a highly ambivalent phenomenon. Johnson, Jeri: Ulysses, p.
Nevertheless there have been many attempts to lay bare a narrative structure, the earliest being Joseph Campbell's and Henry Morton Robinson's Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake. Norris considers this attitude towards the "Wake" as misleading: "The greatest critical mistake in approaching Finnegans Wake has been the assumption that we can be certain of who, where, and when everything is in the Wake , if only we do enough research.
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Attridge also argues to better leave the text as it is than normalize and domesticate it by using the usual modern professional criticism to interpret it. References to Ulysses abbreviated U are to the edition reproduced from copy no. Next to the abbreviations, the references indicate page number and line number on that page. On this account, Scholl argues to consider the grotesque as a transhistoric concept "das jedoch sowohl epochenspezifisch als auch gattungs- und autorenspezifisch variieren kann" Scholl, Dorothea: Von den "Grotesken" zum Grotesken, p. At the end of the 15th century an up till then unknown Roman style of ornamental painting was found during the excavations of the thermae of Titus.
Therefore the murals were called la grottesca cf. Kayser, Wolfgang, p. The hybrid style of these paintings destroys the generally prevailing order of nature by combining human and animal elements as well as organic and inorganic material.
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Additionally, the order of space is annihilated by the typical three-dimensional projections onto a two-dimensional surface. Due to this and due to the resulting self-reference of the paintings on their own artificiality and inscrutability, the renaissance grotesque is actually closely connected to the art and literature of modernism. Thus, "[t]he 'beautiful' then is the aesthetic form from which the grotesque is a deviation" Khouri, Nadia: The Grotesque, p.
Scholl also stresses the fact that the grotesque is seated in an uncanny gray area. On this account, Nadia Khouri calls the grotesque an "anti-code", since it "escapes systematization [and] never attains a statutory position" Khouri, p. Buren v. Theoretical reflection mainly deals with the effect that the grotesque exercises on the reader. Before Kayser, the grotesque mostly had been described as a cruder species of the comic. Kayser, p. Blank, Walter: Zur Entstehung des Grotesken, p. Apparently, Kayser draws near the fantastic with his definition of the grotesque - cf. Tzvetan Todorov's definition of the fantastic: "In a world which is indeed our world, the one we know [ The person who experiences the event must opt for one of two possible solutions: either he is the victim of an illusion of the senses, of a product of the imagination - and the laws of the world then remain what they are; or else the event has indeed taken place, it is an integral part of reality - but then this reality is controlled by laws unknown to us.
That is, within the grotesque always remains an incomprehensible core. This has also to do with the notion of the grotesque as a chimeric category, i. One can never give any definite answers to grotesque phenomena - a tantalizing fact which especially has been proven to the readers and literary critics by the 'Circe' episode in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake as a whole as will be seen in chapter 4.
Laughter in this sense would be no effect of the comic anymore, but one of absurdity cf. Therefore, one naturally cannot find any absurd tendencies in grotesqueries of the Renaissance - wherefore Bakhtin totally differs in this respect from Kayser's notion of the grotesque cf.
These accepted standards could be reason, moral s , and language. It is not surprising that especially classicist poetics time and again point out that ambiguity and the mixing of disparate domains of thought or themes should be avoided, e. While the grotesque disappoints particular expectations of an individual, the absurd abolishes the possibility of expectation as such.
Pietzcker, p. However, this just sounds like a distinction without difference. As McElroy points out "there can be no precise point at which one says, 'the grotesque stops here, commence using some other term', because the grotesque is not a genre to which a work either does or does not belong.
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It does not originate in a particular school or artistic theory, but antedates all schools and theories. Nor is it an absolute which is either fully present or not at all. Rather, it is a continuum which may be present in varying degrees in otherwise disparate works. In literature this kind of grotesque feature is predominant for instance in E. Hoffmann's novella The Sandman Furthermore he spoke German, Danish, and modern Greek passably well. Milesi, p. Next to his talent for languages, he was exposed to the cultural background of Dublin: "Dublin was a strange mix of the oral and the literate cultures.
It prided itself on its reputation of wit, good conversation, malicious gossip, oratory, drama, and journalism. Joyce's work reflects this aspect of the citiy's culture. It is a mosaic of set pieces - sermons, speeches, stories, witticisms, rhetorical extravaganzas, and mimicries. Bakhtin, p. Of course the "the exploration of consciousness [ Taediogene Zonen und ekelhafte Zeiten sind die strategischen Einsatzstellen seiner Konstruktion. Sein Territorium ist eindeutig abgesteckt.